(1997, a)  Circassians. Encyclopedia of American Immigrant Cultures, David Levinson (ed.), New York: Macmillan. (13 pages).

The Circassians are also know by the Turkish designation Cherkess.  They  call themselves Adyghe (three  syllables, stress on the second), with various tribal designations, such as Kabardians, Besleneys, Shapseghs (often erroneously Shapsughs), Bzhedukhs, Abadzakhs, and Chemgwis being most common within the ethnic designation.   Living among them can also be found Abkhaz,(also known by the Russian designation of Abazins and by the Turkish one of Abazas), who call themselves Apswa, as well as a few descendants of the Ubykhs, a small but distinct people who also called themselves Adyghe.

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